Recalcitrant (2019), defined as “having an obstinately uncooperative attitude toward authority or discipline,” explores three different methods of defiance. The first section showcases a whimsical sort of uncooperativeness as a bouncy theme gets interrupted playfully in various ways. A slow-building chorale follows this, exploring a longer and more drawn out type of defiance. The piece closes with an aggressive and antagonistic interpretation of disobedience.

Recording by the 2019 North Carolina Governor's School East Wind Ensemble.